Skip to main content

Full text of "BharatpurState"

See other formats




GLIMPSES 

OF 

GLORIOUS BHARATPUR 
A CONSPECTUS 




CONTENTS 



1. Bharatpur. 

Nhon Village. 
Mallah Village. 

2. Kumher. 

Chhatii of Khande Rao Holkar. 

3. Deeg. 

Au Mound. 

Ram Bagh. 
Samru-ka-Nagla. 

4. Goverdhan. 

5. Kama. 

Parmadra Village. 

6. Bayana. 

Kishan Sagar, Baretha, 

7. Weir. 



8. Rupbas. 

Ancient Temple. 
Khanwa. 



12 



13 



16 



17 



17 



19 



19 






• 'v.: 



BHARATPUR 

Circled by some of the big towns of India - Delhi (110) 
miles, Agra (32 miles), Mathura (22 miles), Jaipur (115 miles) 
lies the historical city of Bharatpur, now the Eastern Gateway 
of Rajasthan to Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Delhi and the 
Punjab. Not long ago it was the capital of the State of that 
name and occupied, as it does even now, a significant position. 
It is a junction of broad and meter gauges of the Western Rail- 
way from Bombay to Amritsar via Delhi and Ahmedabad 
into U.P. and is served by three high ways, 1. Delhi to Bharatpur 
via Kosi or Goverdhan and Decg (11.5 miles). 2. Mathura to 
Bharatpur via Goverdhan (40 miles) and the direct route is 
22 miles. 3. It is 32 miles from Agra or Fatehpur Sikri on the 
main route to Jaipur which is about 115 miles. 

The erstwhile State has had a glorious past, glimpses of 
which can be seen in many places, notable in history, and 
scattered here and there all over the placo. Come, let us have 
a glance at them. 

The Birth Of Bharatpur And Its Fort. 

Having defeated one Khem Karan, Maharaja Snraj Mai 
in the thirties of the Eighteenth Century began the conaolida 
tion of his territorial gain and for control and protection, he 
built a new capital, the third, which might be proof against 
attack. He thereupon laid the foundation of Bharatpur Fort 
which has gone down in history as Lohagarh (the Iron-Fort) 
which has proved to be impregnable. The virginity of the 
Fort has remained unmolested on account of the ingenious 
defensive works, conceived and designed under the instructions 
of the founder. Throe walls one round the other, separated 
by formidable moats afforded protection to the garrison and 




the people inside from guns and enemy. The peculiarities of 
the forts of Suraj Mai were that the outer walls were made 
of mud so that the cannon balls got stuck without doing any 
harm to the masonry fort inside. The perimeter of the outer- 
most wall was seven miles. It took eight years to complete 
the earth work. The Bharatpur fort was completed in 1756 A.D. 
Of the throe walls, the outer most has been raised to the ground 
and one now sees instead green smiling fields. The second 
surrounded by a wide moat lies in moralising rums, still telling 
its tales. The masonry work of the third is braving the weather 
and has a deep perennial moat, three chains wide round it. 
These moats were supplied with water from Kohni Bund which 
was filled by two rivers close by and is still the main source of 
water supply to the inhabitants of Bharatpur, 

The fort has eight bastions and two gates, the one in the 
North is known as the Ashtadhati or the Gate of Eight Metals. 
Historians are of tho opinion that it originally belonged to 
the Sishodia Rajputs of Chittorgarh and was removed to Delhi 
by Allauddin Khilji. Maharaja Jawahar Singh brought it from 
Delhi as a battle trophy. The gate on the South is known as 
Lohia Darwaza or the Iron Gate. It was also brought by 
Maharaja Jawahar Singh from Delhi in 1764 and comes from 
the famous Red Port. 

Burj or Bastions 

The fort has eight bastions of which one figures promi- 
nently and deserves a little discription, i.e., the Jawahar Burj. 
The Coronation Ceremony of the Rulers of Bharatpur takes 
place at Jawahar Burj on one side of which is an Iron Pillar 
about 12 inches in diameter inscribed in Hindi, describing names 
of all the Rulers and their collaterals in Geneaological order, 
descending from times earlier than Lord Krishna to the present 



>i . . 



I 



i 



3 

ruler. A short description of important events of the present 
Ruling Dynasty is also given. 

There is another on the outer ramparts known as the Eateh 
Burj. Both these Bastions constantly remind the inhabitants 
of the fierce attacks of the Mughals and later the British 
troops in the early months of 1805 A.D. Bharatpur was attacked 
heavily four times. Tho last attack took place on the 22nd 
February 1805. The attacks were planned by Lord Lake and 
carried out by Major General Smith and Col. Manson. The 
attacks lasted twentyfour hours and came from the South and 
South-east directions. But due to the resolute determination, 
adequate preparations and breaching of the Kohni Bund the" 
brave soldiers of Bharatpur succeeded in repulsing the enemy in 
all its attacks which show the high morale of the defenders and 
the city as a whole. The British in their four successive attacks 
lost 3203 officers and men. This loss was greater than any 
they had so far suffered in any battle in India. Maharaja 
Ranjit Singh Ruler of that time was weary of the enormous 
expenses of war, he therefore, took advantage of the elevation 
of General Lake to the pearage and offered his congratulations 
expressing his desire for peace. The proposal of the Maharaja 
was accepted by Lord Lake and a Treaty was signed on the 
10th April 1805 A.D. This Treaty was based on permanent 
equal friendship between the East India Company and Sawai 
Bahadur Ranjit Singh. A Treaty of this nature had never so 
far been signed between the East India Company and any 
Maharaja of India. 

PALACES 

Inside the fort are the palaces of the Rulers. The most 
prominent of themareKothi Khas, Kishori Mahal and Mahal Khas. 
Of these, Mahal Khas is still the official residence of the Maharaja's 
family. Kishori Mahal houses the District Offices. Kothi Khas 



4 



has the audiance-chambers locally known as Kamra Khns and 
Dewan-e-Am, built by Maharaja Balwant Singh. The Rulers 
held their Durbars in the building, a portion of which is said 
to be built in European style. The other parts have a Hamam 
and a Museum located nearby. Among the exhibits are fine 
sculptures of ancient and mediaeval ages and other articles 
of interest. . A very fine armoury is also located with the Museum. 
The gardens in front of the Durbar-e-Am are laid in Moghal 
style and the place is known as Kacheri Kalan. The present 
Ruler lives in Moti Mahal Palace situated about a mile east of 
the town, which was built in 1916 A.D. by Maharani Girraj Kaur, 
the grand-mother of the present Ruler, in white sand stone. 
The palace is a beautiful specimen of elegant craftsmanship 
utilising the different architectures of North India. 

TEMPLES 

1. Qangamandir : The construction of this big temple 
was started by Maharaja Balwant Singh and contributions 
were made by a unique method where all persons employed 
in the services of the State were asked to donate one month's 
salary of their service or any rise in pay towards the shrine. 
The temple is of beautiful architectural design. 

2. Dalwalon Ka Mandir: This temple is important for 
its gate of archaeological beauty. 

3. Lakskman Ji's Temple {Neiv): This temple is famous 
for its beautiful stone work. 

4. Panch Mukhi Hanuman: It is an 'Ugra Roop' image of 

God Hanuman and is considered very rare, 

5. Saga Sageshvxiri Devi: This image was said to be the 
family diety of Prithvi Raj Chauhan, the last Hindu King of 
Delhi. 



6. Lakshmanji Vmhaiesh: Official Gurudwaras of the 
Ruling family of Bharatpur. 

7. Sirkiwala Hanuman: This temple is older than 
Bharatpur town and existed in the midst of thick forests before 
Bharatpur was founded. 

8. Hardevji's Temple: Used to be Gurudwara of the 
Great Maharaja Suraj Mai before he became a disciple of the 
Nagas and Lakshmanji Venkatesh. 

9. Brijendra Behariji's Temple, Setvar: This was built 
by Maharaja Jaswant Singh and was handed over to the Vallabh 
Kul Sampradaya. 

10. Satyanarainji's and Girdharlal Ji's Temple at Moti Mahal : 
These temples were constructed by the present Ruler and were 
installed with ancient images found in derelict temples round 
about the State. 

11. Jama, Masgid: Tins was also started by Maharaja 
Balwant Singh and was contributed to by donations in the same 
manner as the Ganga Mandir. 

BEGUM SAMRU'S HOUSE 

Now a Girl's High School, was built by Begum Samru. 
The Begum played an important role iu Indian History. She 
married Walter Rhinehard, a German mercenary soldier and 
supplied troops to the Bharatpur Rulers. 

Bharatpur also has some interesting old mounds at village 
Nhon and Mallah village. Man is on the Agra road and there is 
tin image of Yaksha of Maurya period and is of archaeological 
interest. Mallah village has remains of ancient habitation 
from where statues, centuries old, have been unearthed and 
are in the Bharatpur Museum. 



6 



KEOLA DEV GHANA (SANCTUARY) 

This Swamp is more than a century old and has been 
famous duck-shooting resort lor the Rulers of Bharatpur. It 
is about three miles in the South-east direction of the town, 
and occupies an area of more than twelve square miles of which 
seven thousand acres is under water. The forest area around 
the swamps was used to imprison wild cattle at the request of 
Agra Pargana Administration. Some such cattle are still found 
in adjacent grass farm lands. The area is a famous winter 
resort of countless migratory and non-migratory birds. The 
Wild life Preservation Board, of India, at the instance of our 
Prime Minister, Mr. Jawahar Lai Nehru, persuaded the 
State Government to declare Keola Dev Ghana into a non- 
migratory bird Sanctuary. Every year many persons of note 
from near and far visit the area for study of birds and duck- 
ekooting as guests of the present Maharaja. The Ghana Forest 
and the Swamp are one of the finest and most densely populated 
bird and wild life sanctuaries in India. The Wild Life Board 
of Rajasthan has built a rest house in this preserve. 

Apart from Spotted Deer, Black Buck, Blue Bull, Sambhar, 
Wild Boar, Swamp Deer and Panther you can also find the 
following birds: — 

BIRDS OF BHARATPUR 

Family Corvidae (&*"** > 



•s — - y^\ 

House Crow (Corvua sphndem) \%/ 

JTreepie (Deiidrocilta vagabunda) %$ 

Family Paridae 

Grey Tit (Parus major) 

Family Timalidae 

v/ Jungle Babbler (Turdoides somerviUei)ii& ; 









kM^J) 



■ 



^XJommon Babbler (Argya caudata) ®^ 
./Large Grey Babbler {A. matcolmi) © 
Yelloweyed Babbler [Ohrysomma sinensis) 



y, 



Family Pycnonitidae 

Redvented Bulbul (Molpastes cafer) r %y 
/Whiteeheeked Bulbul (M. leucogenys) (Si) 

/ Family Turdidae 

Pied Bushchat (Saxicola caprata) l @ ) 
(/Collared Bushchat (S. lorqvata) (§.?) 

Redstart (Plioenicuriis ochruros) 
^TJluethroat (Oyanosyhna svecica) ^j) 
"Indian Robin (Sazicoloides fulicata) 
"TMagpie Robin (Gopsychus satdaris) -^2) 

Orangeheaded Ground Thrush (Geocichfa cyanotis) 



b^A^U^i) 



M* 



j 



Family Muscicapidae y "^Q 

"/Red breasted Flycatcher ( M mcicapa parva) $_fj) 
/Whitebrowed Fantail Flycatcher {Rhipidvm pedoralis^s) 

Family Laniidae (Si-^-*) 
Grey Shrike {Lanius exevhitor) ^_ 
•/Bay backed Shrike {Lanms viUatus) ^ 
Rufousbaoked Shrike (Lanius sctoch) r~^\ 

Family Dicruridae 



«4 



Black Drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus) 



40 



Vt* 



bV 



-;'. fl 



X 



Family Sylviidae 

Tailor Bird (Ortholomus sulorius) ^*" 

Chiffohaff (PhyUoscopus cdtlybita) 
wishy Wren- Warbler (Prinut socialis) 

"Indian Wren-Warbler {P. inomuta) _ 



8 

Family Regulidae (6*4*****) 
Firecrested Tit-Warbler (Cephahpyrus fiamm.ke.ps) 

Family Sturnidae (jfaJUrffJ 
Common Starling (Pastor roseus) 
^rahminy Myna (Temetwchus pagodarum) ^) 

uommon Myna (Acridotheres tristis)&) 
"Bank Myna (A. ginginianus) f% 



./Pied Myna (Sturnopastor contra) 6-3 j 



I 



\j^ y - 



/ Family Fringillidae 

'"Yellowthroatod Sparrow (Gymnorhis xanthooollis) *A*Jy 
N /House Sparrow (Passer domestktis) ^) 

Family Hirundinidae ($wM*^>) 
Sand Martin (lliparia palwikokt) 
European Swallow (Hirmido rustica) 
Wiretailed Swallow (H.filifera) 

/ Family Motacilildae OH 

White Wagtail (MotaciUa alba) <§) 
Large Pied Wagtail (if. maderaspatensis) 
Grey Wagtail {ilf . cinerea) 
yYellowheaded Wagtail ( Jf . citreola) (^Z) 

Family Alaudidae 

Short-toed Lark (CalandreUa sp.) 
•^Crested Lark (Galerida cristata) (£j) 

Family Nectariniidae 

"'Purple Sonbird (Ginnyris asiatica) <$jy 

/ FamUy Picidae ( ^' « 

Jfiahratta Woodpecker (Dryobates mahrattensis) €?J 




^Goldenbacked Woodpecker (Br achy pt emus benghal 



■tnsis 



is) <kj 



9 

FamUy CucuUdae [C-->-&-rn) 
^Crow-Pheasant (Centropus sinensis) @ 

Family Psittacidae 

'Roseringed Parakeet (Psittacula kramerii) ® 

Family Coraciidae 

/Indian Roller (Coraeias benghalensis) <Q) 

Family Meropidae 

1/ Green Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) b -^3 

Family Alcedinidae 

Pied Kingfisher (Geryle rttdis) 
Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) 
• Wkitebreasted Kingfisher (Halcyon smymensis) *% 

j Family Upupidae 

Hoopoe (Upupa epops) 4$) 

Family Asionidae 
"'Brown Fish Owl (Ketupa zcyhnensis) © 
■'Spotted Owlet (Athene brama) 

Family Pandionidae 
Osprey (Pandkn haliaetiis) 

Family Aegypiidae 

King Vulture (Sarcogyps cahus) 
/Whitebacked Vulture (Pseudogyps bengalensis) <© 
•White Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) <&i 

Family Falconidae 
Peregrine Falcon (Jfalco peregiinus) 
Kestrel (J', tinmmculus) 



10 



""Tawny Eagle (Aguila rapax) <Z) 

Spotted Eagle (A. clanga) 
"Pallas's Pishing Eagle (Haliaetits leucoryphm) © 

Brahminy Kite (Haliastur indue) 
"Pariah Kite [Milvus migrans) 'ZP 
iJklarsh Harrier [Circus aeruginosus) f'fj 

Shikra (Astur badius) 

sty «5«* © 

" Family Columbldae 

''Green Pigeon {Crocopm phoenicopterus) 
'"Blue Rock Pigeon (Golumba livia) 
^rown Dove (Streptopdia senegalensis) $3 

• Ringed Dove (8. decaocto) tip 
Red Turtle Dove (Oenopopelia Iranquebarica) 

Family Pteroclidae 

Common Sandgrouae (Pterocles exustus) 

Family Phasianidae 

^ Peafowl (Pavo crislatus) €.'•' 

1/ Grey Partridge (Francolimis pondicerianus) '& 

Family Rallidae 
Whitebreasted Waterhen (Amaurornis phomiourm) 

■^toorhen (Gallinula chloropus) '&) 
/Coot {Fvlica atra) fyj) 

Family Jacanidae 

Pheasant-tailed Jacana (HydropJiasianus chirurgus) 

Bronzewinged Jacana (Metopidius indicus) 

Family Gruidae 

Siberian Crane [Qrus leucogeranus) 

sj Saras Crane (Antigone antigone) \^J 



o 




11 

Family Sternidae 

River Tern (Sterna aurantia) 

Family Gharadriidae 

Redwattled Lapwing (LobivaneUus indicus) 
Blackwinged Stilt (Hiinantopus Jrimaniopiis) 

Family Scolopacidae 

Green Sandpiper (Tringa ockropus) 

Common Sandpiper (T. hypoleucos) 

^Spotted Sandpiper (T. glareola) & 

Redshank (T. totanus) 



Family Phalachrocoracidae 

Large Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) 

Indian Shag (P. fuscicollis) 
./Little Cormorant (P. niger) © 
^/Darter (Anhinga mdanogaster) '&) 

Family Plataleidae 
Spoonbill (Platatea leucorodia) 

Family Ibididae 

White Ibis (TkreaMornis melanocepkolus) 
Black Ibis (Pseudibis papilloma) 

Family Ciconiidae 

White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) 
^Whiteneoked Stork (Dissoura episcopus) © 
'Blacknecked Stork (Xenorhynchus asiaticus)Q 

..Painted Stork {Ibis leucocephalus) © 
OpenbOled Stork (Anastomus ostiums) 



^U-w^* 1 &*** 






12 
Family Ardeidae 



(7) 



(S3) rh~-.i^» €f*t 



L* i- (*aM- 



y 

Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) 
' Grey Heron (A. cinerea) © 
Large Egret (Egrelta alba) 

vLesser Egret (E. intermedia) 

Little Egret (E. garzetla) _ 

\ZPond Heron (Ardeola grayii) *ls 
vNight Heron (Nycticorax nyciicorax) ■$) ^"^ - vB ~j 3 

Family Anatidae 

Grey-lag Goose (Anscr anser) 

Barheaded Goose (A. indicus) 

Nukta Duck (Sarkidiorms mdanotua) 

Cotton Teal (Ncttapiis coromandelianus) 

Brahminy Duck (Casarca ferruginea) 
"'Spotbill {Anas poecilorhyncha) 

Gad wall (A. strepera) 

Wigeon (A , pendope) 

Common Teal {A. cr<xra) 
•"''Pintail Duok (A. acuta) ® 
yBluewinged Teal {A. querquedula) & 

.Shoveller (Spatula dypeaM)' r Q) 

Common Pochard (Nyroca ferina) 

White-eyed Pochard (N. ruja) 

Tufted Pochard (N.fuligula) 

KUMHER 

It was the second capital of the Bharatpur State and wan 
founded by Kumbi Jat of Sinsini. Maharaja Badan Singh, 
father of Maharaja Suraj Mai built the palaces and a fortifica- 
tion round the town in 1722. 

The Jal Mahal (or Lake Pavilion) is a beauty Bpot on the 
banks of a large tank. 






13 



Near Kumber is the Chhatri of Khandeo Boo Holkar. This 
Chhatri (Cenotaph) is off the main road and was built by Maharaja 
Suraj Mai for Khande Rao Holkar who died there on returning 
after his defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat. This Chhatri 
was built near about 176i A.D. in the Hindu style of Archi- 
tecture. 

DEEG 

The place is famous for its palaces and gardens laid with 
fountains in the Mughal style and the fort. It is 22 miles from 
Bharatpur. The beautiful palaces were started by Maharaja 
Badan Singh and added to by Maharaja Suraj Mai and 
Maharaja Jawahar Singh. They were modernised by Maharaja 
Jaswant Singh. According to the Historian Thronton, the 
palaces of Deeg are only second to the Taj Mahal Agra in per- 
fection of workmanship. They were built of local white sand 
stone, quarried from the hills at Bayana. Their most interesting 
architectural points are the Double Chhajjas (Eves) and the 
huge tank on an upper storey of a building which holds six 
lakh gallons of water for the fountains. The pipes to these 
fountains are made of clay covered with cloth and lime mortar. 
Copper pipes are only used at the heads of the fountains of 
stone. These are even laid out inside the various palaces. 

GOPAL BHAWAN 

The main building in the quadrangle facing the East is 
Gopal Bhawan. It is the largest of all the palaces and is seven 
storied with spacious and beautiful halls. It also has the famous 
white and black marble slabs, which were originally brought 
by the Mughal Emperor Jehangir to Delhi from Allahabad and 
Maharaja Jawahar Singh brought them to Deeg. In front of 
the Gopal Bhawan are large sand stone slabs measuring 36' x 3'. 
They were originally girders of the main hall and were brought 



14 

by bullock carts from quarries at Baretha, a distance of 50 miles. 

THE MARBLE SWING 

This originally belonged to the Nawabs of Oudh and was 
brought to Deeg by Maharaja Jawahar Singh (as a war trophey). 
The floor slabs of this swing come from some historical bastion 
of Delhi. 

SURAJ BHAWAN 

On the south of the quadrangle is the Suraj Bhawan built 
of marble quarried at Makrana at Jodhpur and skilfully 
ornamented by in-lay work of semi-precious stones. It orice 
decorated the Red Fort of Delhi. After the Great Maharaja 
Suraj Mai was treacherously murdered at Shahdra near Delhi, 
this palaoe was dismantled from the fort in 1765 A.D. and was 
removed to Deeg by his son Maharaja Jawahar Singh who got 
it pieced together in memory of his beloved father and renamed 
it after him. 

NAND BHAWAN 

It is in the North of the quadrangle and was the 
Durbar-e-Am of the Rulers of Bharatpur since 1863. 

MAGHHI BHAWAN 

This palace is famous for its fountains and its thunder 
producing device, hi the hollow of its roof. This was worked 
by some stone balls which when rolled by the pressure of water 
produced noises like thunders. Unfortunately the device was 
permanently stopped when King Edward the Seventh visited 
Deeg as it was considered unsafe for the Royal visitor. They 
have never been restored. 

FORT 

Next in importance to that of Bharatpur is the fort of 






15 

Deeg. The outer mud wall is now hi ruins but the huge masonry 
construction is still intact and is surrounded by a perennial 
moat. The big towers have huge mounted cannons which 
had a range of 18 miles. The magazines and big godowns 
known as 'Khas' were built under-ground (in 1.803 A.D. and 
1805 A.D.). 

AU MOUND 

It is situated on the main road between Kumher and Deeg, 
and was an out-post of Mughals where fierce battles between 
the Mughals and the chivalrous Jats were fought. A decisive 
battle was fought between a Mughal Subedar and Thakur 
Raja Ram of Sinsini (the founder of the present ruling family 
of Bharatpur) resulting in the complete annihilation of the 
Mughal rule in this area. 

RAM BAGH 

On the road to Nagar lies the Rambagh (gardens). It has 
a beautiful pavilion famous for its paintings. The pavilion 
and the gardens were built as places of recreation by Begum 
Samru. 

About a furlong from the Ram Bagh on a ridge is mud 
tower built by Lord Lake in 1802. His flat trajectory guns 
were mounted here to effectively engage the garrison in the 
Deeg Fort. The 150 years old tower in the form of fortress 
stDl stands to remind one of the historical struggles. 

When Lord Lake conquered Deeg and the Ruler retreated 
to Bharatpur, for the first time in history of Horse Cavalry 
cannons were drawn from Deeg to Bharatpur for speed pur- 
poses as before they were usually drawn by elephants and 
bullocks; 



16 

SAMRU KA NAGLA 

It is a small village about a mile from Deeg on the West. 
This village was awarded as a means of livelihood by Begum 
Samru to her husband Walter Rhinehard. gome old family 
graves and an engraved stone on the wall of a well corroborate 
the fact. 

GOVERDHAN 

Shri Girraj Ji is the family diety of the present dynasty 
and is not only worshipped by the Ruling family of Bharatpur 
but by the entire population of Braj. 

MANASI GANGA 
The tank is famous for its scenic beauty and is surrounded 
by temples where devotees como from long distances to bathe 
and pray. The most notable feature of Goverdhan is the annual 
Deewali Fair when little earthen-ware lamps are burnt on the 
bank of the lake and only pure melted butter is used even to 
this day. The devotees also travel bare-foot along a pilgrimage 
of 14 miles round this sacred hill of Shri Girrajji. According to 
Mythology, Lord Krishna lifted it to give shelter to the op- 
pressed. 

According to the ancestral custom the members of tbe 
Ruling House of Bharatpur are all cremated at Goverdhan. 
l^arge number of monuments have been erected in the form 
of Chhatris (Cenotaphs). All of them have beautiful roof and 
wall paintings in Rajasthani style and are richly ornamented 
in stone carving. 

KUSUM SAROVAR 

It is a beautiful tank about two miles North of Goverdhan. 
It is crowned by the magnificent monumented Chhatri, raised 



17 

in memory of Maharaja Suraj Mai who, although was cremated 
on the banks of Jamuna at Shahdara near Delhi, this Chhatri 
was erected over his ashes which were brought from there and 
is built in the Hindu style of Architecture of white sand stone 
brought from the Bayana hills. 

KAMA 
Chaurasi Khambha 

Kama, about 40 miles North of Bharatpur, is a very old 
sacred town of the Hindus and a part of Braj where Lord Krishna 
resided in his early life. It is also known as Kamaban. There 
are remains of an old mosque consisting of 84 pillars called 
Chaurasi Khambha. Kama had also been under the rule of 
Jaipur but was conquered and annexed by Maharaja Jawahar 
Singh. 

There is a tank at Kama named Bimal Kund surrounded 
on all sides by temples and Chhatris built in memory of ancient 
rulers. Kama is served by a metalled road from Deeg and 
Kosi. 

PARMADRA VILLAGE 

Five miles from Deeg on the Kama road is the village of 
Parmadra. It is known as 'Sudama Puri' of the epic period 
and has a Sudama temple. The temple is visited every year 
by a large number of pilgrims. 

BAYANA 

It is situated about 28 miles away in the South-east 
direction of Bharatpur, between two ranges of Arawali hills 
and lies on the old route between Fatehpur Sikri and Rajputana. 
Amongst many note-worthy battles the first was fought between 
Vijai Pal, the ruler of Bayana and Asand Salar nephew of 






18 

Mohammad of Ghazni in 1030 A.D. and the forces of 'Jahadis- 
killed Bijai Pal. The tombs now scattered about Bayana are 

supposed to be those of the Jahadis, 

BAYANA FORT 
The Bayana Hills are covered with the remains of large 
buildings. The fort which is the biggest, was built by the 
famous Hindu King, Banasur, in the times of Lord Krishna 
and was renovated by Maharaja Bijai Pal, in whose time the 
two families of Karauli and Bharatpur separated. The other 
brother built a fort known as Timangarh laying the founda- 
tions of the former State of Karauli. The Bharatpur Ruling 
Family are the descendants of Bijai Pal. The fort is consi- 
dered the third largest in India and covers an area of 10 square 
miles. The palace a high tower, and Bhim Lath (the 
staff of Bhim) stands out as a land mark. Usha Mandir is also 
worth visiting in the present town. 

It is believed that Shahabuddin in 1.195 before laying 
seige to Gwalior, took Bayana. 

In 1401 Bayana again gained importance when Sikandar 
Lodi, the Pathan Monarch of Delhi, laid seige to the fort. 

In 1520 Babar described it as one of the most famous forts 
in India. It was then held by an Afghan chief who surrendered 
it to Babar. Several other battles between the Rajput Princes, 
Mughals, and Marhattas were fought near Bayana. The Mughal 
Emperor Akbar witnessed a March Past of his troops from a 
place near Bayana town, known as 'Chardari' and has the in- 
scription on it. 

KISHAN SAGAR 

It is situated in the famous stone producing Baretha hills, 
connected by road and rail from Bayana direct from Bharatpur 



19 

via Uchchain and by train from Agra. 

The Dam work was started during the rulo of Maharaja 
Jaswant Singh on the river Kakund which Hows in a valley 
of the Arawali Hills. 

The lake is nine miles long with a net work of picturesque 
back waters forming a scenic wonder. On the Eastern ridge 
His late Highness Maharaja Kishan Singh built a beautiful 
palace overlooking the lake. 

The lake is nesting ground of a number of birds, and the 
hills a favourite haunt of big game (tigers etc.). For tourists 
there is a very nice Dak-bungalow below the Dam. Kishan 
Sagar makes a wonderful fishing, boating and bird-watching 
holiday resort during the winter and monsoon months. 

WEIR 

Nearly two hundred years ago Weir was founded by Maha- 
raja Suraj Mai. He built a fort, palaces and (Mughal) gardens. 
Pratap Singh, the second son of Maharaja Suraj Mai and brother 
of the famous Maharaja Jawahar Singh lived there. The palace 
is made to look like Deeg. The fort is also very beautiful and 
of interest from archaeological point of view. 

RUP BAS 

Now the headquarters of a Tehsil, was said to have been 
founded by a Rup Singh who was originally a descendant of 
the Chittor Maharanas and embraced Islam in the reign of 
Akbar the Great. There is a beautiful palace and a tank still 
in existence, though dilapidated. Being near Fatehpur Sikri, 
Emperor Akbar and Jahangir used Rup Bas palaces as shooting 
lodge. The Mughal Emperor Jahangir is supposed to have 
seen the famous Anarkali for the first time in the forests at 



20 



Hup Bas when she was passing through with her parents, for 

Agra. 

Five miles from liup Bas is an ancient temple with images 
carved in rock, each 20 ft. long and of Archaeological interest. 

KHANWA 

The name brings hack to us all the glory and chivalry 
of old warriors. It was here that Babar by defeating Rana 
Sanga in a terrible carnage in 1527-28 established the glorious 
Mughal rule in India. 






"**&&■ •' 




'.ptlntednt: 
Oxford Printing Works. New Delhi